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Maryland (US: (listen) MERR-ə-lənd) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state's largest city is Baltimore, and its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, and the Chesapeake Bay State. It is named after the English Queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary, who was the wife of King Charles I.

Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties, as well as the city of Baltimore, border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U.S., it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography, culture, and history combine elements of the Mid-Atlantic, Northeastern, and Southern regions of the country.

Before its coastline was explored by Europeans in the 16th century, Maryland was inhabited by several groups of Native Americans, mostly by the Algonquin, and to a lesser degree by the Iroquois and Sioux. As one of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain Maryland was founded by George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England. In 1632, Charles I of England granted Lord Baltimore a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary (Henrietta Maria of France). Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who rejected Catholicism in their settlements, Lord Baltimore envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Nevertheless, religious strife was common in the early years, and Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony.

Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay. Its economy was heavily plantation-based and centered mostly on the cultivation of tobacco. Britain's need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, and African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania. Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, and by 1776, its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key political and military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U.S. capital of Washington, D.C.

Although then a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the American Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, and mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown rapidly, to approximately six million residents, and it is among the most densely populated U.S. states. As of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its proximity to Washington, D.C. and a highly diversified economy spanning manufacturing, services, higher education, and biotechnology. The state's central role in U.S. history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita.

Maryland Media

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Catherine Russell, U.S. Ambassador-at-Large for Global

Catherine Russell, U.S. Ambassador-at-Large for Global

Catherine Russell, U.S. Ambassador-at-Large for Global Women's Issues shares a light moment with International Security Assistance Force service members and civilian gender advisors during a Veteran’s Day break... More

Maj. Gen. Darryl A. Williams, U.S. Army Africa commander,

Maj. Gen. Darryl A. Williams, U.S. Army Africa commander,

Maj. Gen. Darryl A. Williams, U.S. Army Africa commander, shakes hands with Brig. Gen. Daniel Dee Ziankahn, Armed Forces of Liberia chief of staff, during a welcoming ceremony at USARAF’s headquarters building,... More

ERBIL, Iraq - Outgoing U.S. Army Command Sgt. Maj.

ERBIL, Iraq - Outgoing U.S. Army Command Sgt. Maj.

ERBIL, Iraq - Outgoing U.S. Army Command Sgt. Maj. Matthew Clark of the 4th Squadron, 6 Calvary Regiment, Lt. Col. Eddy Lee, the commander of the 4th Sqdn., 6th Cav. Regt., and incoming Command Sgt. Maj. Steven... More

This gourd was designed and carved with a burning tool

This gourd was designed and carved with a burning tool

This gourd was designed and carved with a burning tool by local artist Karin Bradshaw, a native of Glen Burnie, Md., one of the many crafts persons visited by participants in Fort Bliss MWR's Tour De Cruces tri... More

Frakturs illumination - John Moyer, Maryland

Frakturs illumination - John Moyer, Maryland

Original Caption: Illustrated family record (Fraktur) found in Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land-Warrant Application File R7532, for John Moyer, Maryland., ca. 1800 - ca. 1900..U.S. National Archives’ ... More

A Sketch of the Military Topography of Baltimore and its Vicinity and of Patapsco Neck to North Point

A Sketch of the Military Topography of Baltimore and its Vicinity and ...

This map shows British and American positions before Baltimore during the British attack of September 12-14. It includes the positions of Brigadier General John Stricker's Maryland forces consisting of Captain... More

Chiffelle, Thomas P - State: Maryland - Year: 1836 - File Number: C380
Ashton, W H - State: Maryland - Year: 1839 - File Number: A158
Ernst, R F - State: Maryland - Year: 1842 - File Number: E69
Frayssoux, [Blank] - State: Maryland - Year: 1842 - File Number: F86
Elliott, Grafton W - State: Maryland - Year: 1842 - File Number: E9
Ringgold, S - State: Maryland - Year: 1842 - File Number: R184
Hodson, Levin - State: Maryland - Year: 1843 - File Number: H64
Hose, Jas - State: Maryland - Year: 1843 - File Number: H23
Dusenbery, S B - State: Maryland - Year: 1846 - File Number: D217
Parsons, William D - State: Maryland - Year: 1848 - File Number: P142
Poteet, Wm H - State: Maryland - Year: 1848 - File Number: P255
Smith, C F - State: Maryland - Year: 1848 - File Number: S1136
Gardner, G F - State: Maryland - Year: 1848 - File Number: G196
Hardee, W J - State: Maryland - Year: 1848 - File Number: H262
Riggs, Claudius - State: Maryland - Year: 1848 - File Number: R34
Russell, Joseph - State: Maryland - Year: 1848 - File Number: R49
Roose, John J - State: Maryland - Year: 1848 - File Number: R48
Hughes, John - State: Maryland - Year: 1848 - File Number: H295
Gardner, F - State: Maryland - Year: 1848 - File Number: G540
Hughes, Geo W - State: Maryland - Year: 1848 - File Number: H92
Ridgely, S C - State: Maryland - Year: 1848 - File Number: R233
Gaines, [Blank] - State: Maryland - Year: 1848 - File Number: G532
Gray, William H - State: Maryland - Year: 1848 - File Number: G223
Gray, William H - State: Maryland - Year: 1848 - File Number: G250
Front Range View of Craighill Channel Lighthouse, Maryland

Front Range View of Craighill Channel Lighthouse, Maryland

Lighthouse Plans for Craighill Channel, Maryland

Rear Range View of Craighill Channel Lighthouse, Maryland

Rear Range View of Craighill Channel Lighthouse, Maryland

Lighthouse Plans for Craighill Channel, Maryland

Elevation Drawing and Floor Plan for Light Keeper's Dwelling
Magruder, J B - State: Maryland - Year: 1859 - File Number: M384
Photograph of the Construction of the Cabin John Bridge over Cabin John Creek, Originally Known as the Washington Aqueduct Bridge No. 4 in Maryland
Central Virginia showing Lieut. Gen'l. U.S. Grant's Campaign and Marches of the Armies under his Command in 1864-5. Engineer Bureau, War Dept....Prepared by Order of the Secretary of War For the Officers of the U.S. Army under the command of Lieut. Gen. U. S. Grant.
Jones, Llewellyn - State: Maryland - Year: 1860 - File Number: J35
Tracing Copy (Captured form Rebels). Portions of Penna. and Maryland [and West Virginia].
Howard, J - State: Maryland - Year: 1860 - File Number: H298
[Map of part of Montgomery County showing] Topographical Approaches on the Left Bank of the Potomac to Washington City from the North West. Surveyed by Parties of U. S. Coast Survey detailed by A. D. Bache, Supt., to act under the orders of Lieut. Col. J. N. Macomb, Chf. Topl. Engr. of the Army of the Potomac. Parts of Sept. & Oct. 1861. Field work by F. W. Dorr & C. Rockwell, U.S.C.S. ...Drawn by E. Hergesheimer. Photographs by G. Mathiot and D. Hinkle.

[Map of part of Montgomery County showing] Topographical Approaches on...

Maryland, the District of Columbia, and the Potomac River

Map of the Battles of Bull Run Near Manassas

Map of the Battles of Bull Run Near Manassas

Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay

Hughes, Geo W - State: Maryland - Year: 1860 - File Number: H188
Central Virginia showing Maj. Gen'l. P. H. Sheridan's Campaigns and Marches of the Cavalry under his Command in 1864-65, drawn and lithographed under direction of Brvt. Maj. G. L. Gillespie, U.S.A., Chief Eng., Mil. Div. of the Gulf, Oct. 1865. Authorities--Engineer Bureau, War Dept.
Map of that portion of the Battle Field of Antietam occupied by the troops under Maj. Gen. Burnside, made by order of Maj. Gen. McClellan from surveys made under the supervision of Capt. R. S. Williamson, Top'l. Eng'r., on Staff of Maj. Gen. Burnside, by H. C. Fillebrown [and] E. S. Waters, Civ. Eng'rs.

Map of that portion of the Battle Field of Antietam occupied by the tr...

Maryland, the District of Columbia, and the Potomac River

[Map of area in the vicinity of Berkeley Springs.]
Martenet's Map of Kent County, Maryland

Martenet's Map of Kent County, Maryland

Baltimore District Office Alphabetical File

Topographical copy of a Map of the Valley of the Shenandoah River From Strasburg, [Va.], to Harper's Ferry. [W.] Va., with the adjacent counties west of it and south of the Potomac River

Topographical copy of a Map of the Valley of the Shenandoah River From...

Topographical copy of a Map of the Valley of the Shenandoah River From Strasburg, [Va.], to Harper's Ferry. [W.] Va., with the adjacent counties west of it and south of the Potomac River, Captured in the rebel ... More

[Map of the Shenandoah Valley from Strasburg, Va., to Harpers Ferry and vicinity, W. Va., "captured in General Lomax's Quarter wagons" by General Custer on October 9, 1864.]
Copy of Section of Photograph Map captured from the enemy Showing country adjacent to Richmond and Lines of Defensive Works surrounding the City. Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Engineer Department, August 18th, 1864, [and one part dated] Dec. 20th, 1864.
Hazzard, George W - State: Maryland - Year: 1860 - File Number: H72
Sketch of the Site of the O[pe]rations of the 10th, 11th, & 12th, July 1861, at Rich Mountain near Beverly, Randolph Co., [West] Virginia, between the U. S. Forces under Major Gen. Geo. McClellan and the Confederate troops, by Lieut. O. M. poe, U. S. Topl. Engrs.
Jones, Llewellyn - State: Maryland - Year: 1860 - File Number: J28
Breed, Henry - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Gilimor, Harry - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Woolley, Frank - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Prout, J S - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Brown, Letty - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Welch, Daniel - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Beerbower, J - State: Maryland - Year: 1861
McConkiel, Reuben - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Chiffelle, [Blank] - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Dougherty, W - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Baker, G P - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Chesley, Daniel S - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Parsley, D - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Herd, J W - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Grace, William - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Burke, Nicholas - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Brand, A J - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Blumenauer, J N - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Parsons, J F - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Mudd, E M - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Power, E J - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Mills, Joseph - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Filus, J W - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Dorsey, Lanken - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Cottrell, Thomas - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Konig, Henry - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Ridgeley, S - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
McConkey, W - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Reimie, Leon - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Woodhouse, E H - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Ford, Benj B - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Woolley, A K - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Gillen, Patrick - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Rice, George R - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Acton, S G - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Gilmore, Hoffman - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Stwart, Kenting - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Helton, C - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Guyther, J W - Age [Blank], Year: 1861 - First Battery Artillery, P-Y, Second Battery Artillery, A-J - Maryland

Guyther, J W - Age [Blank], Year: 1861 - First Battery Artillery, P-Y,...

Carded Records Showing Military Service of Soldiers Who Fought in Confederate Organizations

Eagers, Harvey - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Gatchall, Saml H - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Forrest, And J - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Pratt, [Blank] - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Grogan, Kennedy - Age 17, Year: 1861 - First Infantry, E-L - Maryland

Grogan, Kennedy - Age 17, Year: 1861 - First Infantry, E-L - Maryland

Carded Records Showing Military Service of Soldiers Who Fought in Confederate Organizations

Britton, D B - State: Maryland - Year: 1861
McGuire, F J - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Watkins, A J - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
Parsons, J J - State: Maryland - Year: [Blank]
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The objects in this collection are from The U.S. National Archives and Defense Visual Information Distribution Service. The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) was established in 1934 by President Franklin Roosevelt. NARA keeps those Federal records that are judged to have continuing value—about 2 to 5 percent of those generated in any given year. There are approximately 10 billion pages of textual records; 12 million maps, charts, and architectural and engineering drawings; 25 million still photographs and graphics; 24 million aerial photographs; 300,000 reels of motion picture film; 400,000 video and sound recordings; and 133 terabytes of electronic data. The Defense Visual Information Distribution Service provides a connection between world media and the American military personnel serving at home and abroad. All of these materials are preserved because they are important to the workings of Government, have long-term research worth, or provide information of value to citizens.

Disclaimer: A work of the U.S. National Archives and DVIDS is "a work prepared by an officer or employee" of the federal government "as part of that person's official duties." In general, under section 105 of the Copyright Act, such works are not entitled to domestic copyright protection under U.S. law and are therefore in the public domain. This website is developed as a part of the world's largest public domain archive, PICRYL.com, and not developed or endorsed by the U.S. National Archives or DVIDS.  https://www.picryl.com

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