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The 19th (nineteenth) century began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900. The term is often used to refer to the 1800s, the century between January 1, 1800 and December 31, 1899. The 19th century was the ninth century of the 2nd millennium.

The 19th century saw large amounts of social change; slavery was abolished, and the First and Second Industrial Revolutions (which also overlap with the 18th and 20th centuries, respectively) led to massive urbanization and much higher levels of productivity, profit and prosperity. The Islamic gunpowder empires were formally dissolved and European imperialism brought much of South Asia, Southeast Asia and almost all of Africa under colonial rule.

It was marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Zulu Kingdom, First French, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire, the Russian Empire, the United States, the German Empire (essentially replacing the Holy Roman Empire), the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Italy and Meiji Japan, with the British boasting unchallenged dominance after 1815. After the defeat of the French Empire, and its Indian allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the British and Russian empires expanded greatly, becoming the world's leading powers. The Russian Empire expanded in the Caucasus, central and far eastern Asia. The Ottoman Empire went through a period of westernization and reform known as the Tanzimat, vastly increasing their control over their core territories in Anatolia and the Near East. Despite this, the sick man of Europe remained in a period of decline, losing territory in the Balkans, Egypt, and North Africa.

The remaining powers in the Indian subcontinent such as the Kingdom of Mysore and its French allies, Nawabs of Bengal, Maratha Empire, Sikh Empire and the princely states of the Nizam of Hyderabad, suffered a massive decline, and their dissatisfaction with British East India Company's rule led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, marking its dissolution, however, it was later ruled directly by the British Crown through the establishment of the British Raj.

The British Empire grew rapidly in the first half of the century, especially with the expansion of vast territories in Canada, Australia, South Africa and heavily populated India, and in the last two decades of the century in Africa. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the world's land and one-quarter of the world's population. During the post-Napoleonic era, it enforced what became known as the Pax Britannica, which had ushered in unprecedented globalization and economic integration on a massive scale.

19th century Media

2,248 media by topicpage 1 of 23
Lady

Lady

Original Caption: Lady..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-1597..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Brady, Mathew,... More

War of 1812, The

War of 1812, The

ARC Identifier 37624 / Local Identifier 146.5. Contributor: Producer, U.S. Navy. U.S. Civil Service Commission. (1883 - 01/01/1979)

Drawing Showing the Proposed Lighthouse at the Mouth of the Mississippi River, Louisiana

Drawing Showing the Proposed Lighthouse at the Mouth of the Mississipp...

Records Relating to the Lighthouse at the Mississippi River, Louisiana

Elevation and Plan Drawing for the Lighthouse and Dwelling at Tarpaulin Cove, Massachusetts

Elevation and Plan Drawing for the Lighthouse and Dwelling at Tarpauli...

Lighthouse Plan for Tarpaulin Cove, Massachusetts

Drawing of the Lighthouse at Nash Island, Maine

Drawing of the Lighthouse at Nash Island, Maine

Records Relating to the Lighthouse at Nash Island, Maine

Drawing for a Proposed 6th Order Lens Column for the Lighthouse at Charleston, South Carolina

Drawing for a Proposed 6th Order Lens Column for the Lighthouse at Cha...

Maps and Plans Relating to the Lighthouse at Charleston, South Carolina

A nighttime view of the Alamo Chapel located at #1 Alamo Plaza, San Antonio, Texas (TX). This is the front of the Old Spanish Mission Fort where 189 defenders sacrificed their lives and fought to the death rather than surrender to the forces of the Mexican General Santa Anna in the year 1836

A nighttime view of the Alamo Chapel located at #1 Alamo Plaza, San An...

The original finding aid described this photograph as: Base: San Antonio State: Texas (TX) Country: United States Of America (USA) Scene Camera Operator: Don S. Montgomery, CIV Release Status: Released to ... More

A view of the Alamo Chapel located at #1 Alamo Plaza, San Antonio, Texas (TX). This is the front of the Old Spanish Mission Fort where 189 defenders sacrificed their lives and fought to the death rather than surrender to the forces of the Mexican General Santa Anna in the year 1836

A view of the Alamo Chapel located at #1 Alamo Plaza, San Antonio, Tex...

The original finding aid described this photograph as: Base: San Antonio State: Texas (TX) Country: United States Of America (USA) Scene Camera Operator: Don S. Montgomery, CIV Release Status: Released to ... More

U.S. Custom House, Boston, Massachusetts, Traverse Section of Winning Design

U.S. Custom House, Boston, Massachusetts, Traverse Section of Winning ...

The Boston Custom House, constructed 1837-1847, is among the earliest federal buildings erected outside the nation's capital. After Congress authorized a new custom house for the city of Boston, a local board o... More

Drawing of Raft

Drawing of Raft

Restored Patent Drawings

Drawing of a Traveling Trunk

Drawing of a Traveling Trunk

This patent was designed by John Fitzgibbon. Utility Patent Drawings

Drawing for the Proposed Black Rock Beacon, Connecticut

Drawing for the Proposed Black Rock Beacon, Connecticut

Lighthouse Plans for Black Rock Beacon, Connecticut

Elevation and Section of Cast Iron Lighthouse at Long Island Head, Massachusetts

Elevation and Section of Cast Iron Lighthouse at Long Island Head, Mas...

Lighthouse Plans for Long Island Head, Massachusetts

Drawing of a Surveyor's Compass

Drawing of a Surveyor's Compass

This patent was designed by Samuel Kern. Utility Patent Drawings

Elevation Drawing for the Lighthouse at Carysfort Reef, Florida

Elevation Drawing for the Lighthouse at Carysfort Reef, Florida

Maps and Plans Relating to the Lighthouse at Carysfort Reef, Florida

Drawing of the Lighthouse at Mount Desert, Maine

Drawing of the Lighthouse at Mount Desert, Maine

Maps and Plans Relating to the Lighthouse at Mount Desert, Maine

Drawing of Design for Silver Forks

Drawing of Design for Silver Forks

This drawing was produced by Michael Gibney. Design Patent Drawings.

Elevation Drawing for the Lighthouse at Monhegan, Maine
Elevation and Plan of Execution Rocks Lighthouse, New York

Elevation and Plan of Execution Rocks Lighthouse, New York

Lighthouse Maps and Plans for Execution Rocks, New York

Plan and Profile of Boon Island and Lighthouse, Maine

Plan and Profile of Boon Island and Lighthouse, Maine

Lighthouse Plans for Boon Island, Maine

Lighthouse Plan for Belle Isle, Michigan

Lighthouse Plan for Belle Isle, Michigan

Lighthouse Plans for Belle Isle, Michigan

Front Range View of Craighill Channel Lighthouse, Maryland

Front Range View of Craighill Channel Lighthouse, Maryland

Lighthouse Plans for Craighill Channel, Maryland

Rear Range View of Craighill Channel Lighthouse, Maryland

Rear Range View of Craighill Channel Lighthouse, Maryland

Lighthouse Plans for Craighill Channel, Maryland

Section, Elevation and Plan Drawing for the Lighthouse at Montauk Point, NY
Section, Elevation and Plan Drawing for the Lighthouse at Whales Back, New Hampshire
Section, Elevation and Plan Drawing for the Lighthouse at Egg Rock, Massachusetts
Section and Elevation Drawing for the Lighthouse at Bird Island, Massachusetts
Sketch Map (Diseno) of California Land Claim

Sketch Map (Diseno) of California Land Claim

California Land Claim Sketch Maps

Elevation and Ground Plan for the Lighthouse at Sandy Point, Rhode Island
Drawing for a Proposed Battery Light for the Lighthouse at Morris Island, South Carolina

Drawing for a Proposed Battery Light for the Lighthouse at Morris Isla...

Records Relating to the Lighthouse at Morris Island, South Carolina

Drawing of the Fog Bell at Cape Elizabeth, Maine

Drawing of the Fog Bell at Cape Elizabeth, Maine

Lighthouse Plan for Cape Elizabeth, Maine

Front Elevation Drawing for the Lighthouse at Gardiner's Island, New York
Elevation Drawing and Plan for the Proposed Lighthouse Dwelling at Cat Island, Mississippi

Elevation Drawing and Plan for the Proposed Lighthouse Dwelling at Cat...

Map and Plan Relating to the Lighthouse at Cat Island, Mississippi

Side Elevation Drawing for the Lighthouse at Petit Manan, Maine

Side Elevation Drawing for the Lighthouse at Petit Manan, Maine

Records Relating to the Lighthouse at Petit Manan, Maine

Drawing of the Lighthouse Keeper's Dwelling at Jupiter Inlet, Florida
Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: Isles of Shoals Light Station, New Hampshire. District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: Isles of Shoals Light Station, New Hampshire. Date: September 24, 1892 District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Drawing of the Franklin Island Lighthouse, Maine

Drawing of the Franklin Island Lighthouse, Maine

Lighthouse Plans for Franklin Island, Maine

Drawing of Design for Spoons

Drawing of Design for Spoons

Design Patent Drawings.

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: Isles of Shoals Light Station, New Hampshire. District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: Isles of Shoals Light Station, New Hampshire. District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: Isles of Shoals Light Station, New Hampshire. District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: Isles of Shoals Light Station, New Hampshire. Date: 1892 District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: Isles of Shoals Light Station, New Hampshire. District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: Isles of Shoals Light Station, New Hampshire. District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: Isles of Shoals Light Station, New Hampshire. District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Elevation Drawing for the Lighthouse at Jupiter Inlet, Florida

Elevation Drawing for the Lighthouse at Jupiter Inlet, Florida

Lighthouse Plans for Jupiter Inlet, Florida

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: Appledore Island from East. Date: July 13, 1898 District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: Isles of Shoals Light Station, New Hampshire. Date: July 7, 1892 District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: Isles of Shoals Light Station, New Hampshire. Date: 1860 District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: White Island Lighthouse and Dwelling Date: 1888 District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: Isles of Shoals Light Station, New Hampshire. District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: Appledore Island from East. Date: August 2, 1898 District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: Isles of Shoals Light Station, New Hampshire. District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: Isles of Shoals Light Station, New Hampshire. District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Isles of Shoals -- New Hampshire

Caption: Isles of Shoals Light Station, New Hampshire. District: 1 State: NH New Hampshire -- Isles of Shoals

Design for Knives and Forks

Design for Knives and Forks

Design Patent Drawings.

Color photo: Old Kasaan, Alaska.

Color photo: Old Kasaan, Alaska.

On reverse side of backing: "Henry William Booth, Metlakahtla, Alaska." Photographs of the Inhabitants of Metlakatla, British Columbia and Metlakatla, Alaska

Section and Elevation Drawing for the Lighthouse at Atchafalaya Bay, Louisiana
Drawing of Improvement in Tents

Drawing of Improvement in Tents

Utility Patent Drawings

Drawing of Improved Artificial Leg

Drawing of Improved Artificial Leg

Utility Patent Drawings

Drawing Showing the Design of the Lighthouse Tower and Dwelling at Fenwick Island, Delaware
"Wind Mountain" Columbia River (above Cascades) looking up

"Wind Mountain" Columbia River (above Cascades) looking up

Landscape Views of the Area Along the Northwest Boundary

Kootenay River. Junction with Elk River. View from trail on right bank

Kootenay River. Junction with Elk River. View from trail on right bank

Landscape Views of the Area Along the Northwest Boundary

H. B. Co. Fort Langley, left bank of Fraser River. Langley Buttes in the distance

H. B. Co. Fort Langley, left bank of Fraser River. Langley Buttes in t...

Landscape Views of the Area Along the Northwest Boundary

Semiahmoo Bay, from Bluff near entrance of "Mud Bay" with Camp Semiahmoo, Drayton's Harbor and distant view of Mt. Baker to E

Semiahmoo Bay, from Bluff near entrance of "Mud Bay" with Camp Semiahm...

Landscape Views of the Area Along the Northwest Boundary

Esquimalt Harbor, from summit of "Mill Mountain" near head of bay showing "Active and "Satellite's" anchorage. In the distance Smiths' or Blunts' Island and entrance to Haro and Rosario Straits

Esquimalt Harbor, from summit of "Mill Mountain" near head of bay show...

Landscape Views of the Area Along the Northwest Boundary

Photograph of the Capitol Building Under Construction in Washington, DC

Photograph of the Capitol Building Under Construction in Washington, D...

Photographs of Federal and Other Buildings in the United States

View from monument at Summit looking E. across Waterton or Chief Mountain Lake along 49th parallel. Yellow peak on left bears N. 30. E

View from monument at Summit looking E. across Waterton or Chief Mount...

Landscape Views of the Area Along the Northwest Boundary

Plante's Crossing--Spokane River and Plains--trail runs N. N. E

Plante's Crossing--Spokane River and Plains--trail runs N. N. E

Landscape Views of the Area Along the Northwest Boundary

Foundation Screw Design for the Lighthouse at Atchafalaya Bay, Louisiana
Portrait of Frederick S. Gates

Portrait of Frederick S. Gates

Caption: Portrait of Frederick S. Gates, great-uncle of Bess Wallace Truman. From: Truman home, an album (water-lily embossed) of family portraits. Photographs Relating to the Administration, Family, and Person... More

Mrs. Landkul

Mrs. Landkul

Original Caption: Mrs. Landkul..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-1640..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Brady,... More

Mrs. Notman

Mrs. Notman

Original Caption: Mrs. Notman..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-1650..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Brady, ... More

Miss Clara Barton

Miss Clara Barton

Original Caption: Miss Clara Barton..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-1857..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: B... More

Miss Mary Glenmurry

Miss Mary Glenmurry

Original Caption: Miss Mary Glenmurry..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-1725..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer:... More

Mrs. Weinburg

Mrs. Weinburg

Original Caption: Mrs. Weinburg..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-1664..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Brady... More

Mrs. De Lauterette

Mrs. De Lauterette

Original Caption: Mrs. De Lauterette..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-1692..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: ... More

Camp scene, ladies in camp

Camp scene, ladies in camp

Original Caption: Camp scene, ladies in camp..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-2732..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photog... More

Mrs. Shannon

Mrs. Shannon

Original Caption: Mrs. Shannon..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-1649..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Brady,... More

Miss Bradon

Miss Bradon

Original Caption: Miss Bradon..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-1720..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Brady, ... More

Miss Lawrence

Miss Lawrence

Original Caption: Miss Lawrence..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-1746..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Brady... More

Miss Gates

Miss Gates

Original Caption: Miss Gates..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-2277..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Brady, M... More

Mrs. Draper

Mrs. Draper

Original Caption: Mrs. Draper..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-1611..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Brady, ... More

Mrs. Glenmurry

Mrs. Glenmurry

Original Caption: Mrs. Glenmurry..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-2269..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Brad... More

Mrs. Conlin

Mrs. Conlin

Original Caption: Mrs. Conlin..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-2274..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Brady, ... More

Mrs. Rawson

Mrs. Rawson

Original Caption: Mrs. Rawson..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-1741..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Brady, ... More

Brevet Brigadier General John E. Mulford, Colonel of 3rd New York Infantry, with His Wife and Mr. and Mrs. William Allen. This Picture was Taken on the Porch of Mr. Allen's House at Richmond, Virginia.

Brevet Brigadier General John E. Mulford, Colonel of 3rd New York Infa...

Original Caption: Bvt. Brig. Gen. John E. Mulford, Col. of 3rd N.Y. Inf., with his wife and Mr. and Mrs. William Allen. This picture was taken on the porch of Mr. Allen's house at Richmond, Va..U.S. National Ar... More

Mrs. Roberts

Mrs. Roberts

Original Caption: Mrs. Roberts..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-3266..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Brady,... More

Janauschek, Actress

Janauschek, Actress

Original Caption: Janauschek, Actress..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-3247..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer:... More

Mrs. Baldwin

Mrs. Baldwin

Original Caption: Mrs. Baldwin..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-1681..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Brady,... More

Miss F. Drumming

Miss F. Drumming

Original Caption: Miss F. Drumming..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-1694..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Br... More

Mrs. Skiddy

Mrs. Skiddy

Original Caption: Mrs. Skiddy..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-3273..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Brady, ... More

Mrs. S. A. Hare

Mrs. S. A. Hare

Original Caption: Mrs. S.A. Hare..U.S. National Archives’ Local Identifier: 111-B-1735..From:: Series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes, (Record Group 111)..Photographer: Brad... More

U.S. National Archives & DVIDS

The objects in this collection are from The U.S. National Archives and Defense Visual Information Distribution Service. The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) was established in 1934 by President Franklin Roosevelt. NARA keeps those Federal records that are judged to have continuing value—about 2 to 5 percent of those generated in any given year. There are approximately 10 billion pages of textual records; 12 million maps, charts, and architectural and engineering drawings; 25 million still photographs and graphics; 24 million aerial photographs; 300,000 reels of motion picture film; 400,000 video and sound recordings; and 133 terabytes of electronic data. The Defense Visual Information Distribution Service provides a connection between world media and the American military personnel serving at home and abroad. All of these materials are preserved because they are important to the workings of Government, have long-term research worth, or provide information of value to citizens.

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